Alphabet Aids

Manuscript Writing


1. Babylonian Codex of the Prophets in St. Petersburg. 2. Manuscript of Sirach. 3. Pentateuch with Targum from Babylonia or Persia, twelfth century, British Museum, Oriental, 1467. (According to Paleographical Society, Oriental series liv.) 4. Manuscript of the Prophets, from Persia, Babylonia, or Southern Arabia, twelfth century, British Museum, Harl. MS. 5720 (Paleographical Society, Oriental series xl.). 5. Hafṭarot with the Targum Jonathan from Southern Arabia from the year 1484. 6. Hagiographa with Rashi. German (Ashkenazi), of the year 1347. Cambridge University Library, Ee 5, 9 (Paleographical Society, Oriental series xli.). 7. Modern German script of the nineteenth century with ornamental flourishes or strokes. 8. Papyri from Egypt. 9. MS. alphabet of the TaḦamonim (African Sephardic) of 1282. British Museum, Additional Manuser, of 27113 (Paleographical Society, Oriental series lv.). 10. Sefer ha-Mishḳol written at Mustaghanem (Algeria), in 1363-64. Cambridge University Libr., Cod. 11. 22 (Paleographical Society, Oriental series xxx.). 11. See 5. 12. Epigraph from a Karaite Pentateuch roll from Theodosia (Crimea), about 1325 (C. I. H. 138). 13. Rashi on Baba Meẓi’a, written probably at Mosul (betraying the influence of a Greek-Ashkenazi hand) in 1190. British Museum, Oriental, 73. (According to Paleographical Society series xv.). 14. Talmud Yerushalmi, written at Rome in 1288-89 (Italian-Ashkenazi hand). Leyden University Library. Cod. Hebr. Sealiger 3. (Paleographical Society, Oriental series lvi.) 15. Menahem, MaḦberot, probably written in France in 1091 (French-Ashkenazi type). British Museum, Additional Manuser. of 27214. (According to the Paleographical Society, Oriental series xiii.) 16. Semak, copied by R. Moses of Zurich (French-Ashkenazi), in 1401. Cambridge University Library, Additional Manuser. No. 560 (Paleographical Society, Oriental series lxviii.). 17. See 6.

Cursive Writing

V01p4530011.Incantation upon Babylonian dish, in C. I. H. 18. 2. Egyptian of the twelfth century. 3. Constantinople, 1506. 4. Tenth century. 5. Spanish, date 1480. 6. Spanish, tenth century. 7. Provençal, tenth century. 8. Italian, tenth century. 9. Greek, dated 1375. 10. Italian, dated 1451. 11. Italian, tenth century. 12. German, tenth century. 13. Eleazer of Worms, , copied at Rome in 1515 by Elias Levita, German-Ashkenazic, British Museum, Additional Manuser. of 27199 (Paleographical Society, Oriental series lxxix.). 14. Ashkenazic from the nineteenth century.


Alphabet, The Hebrew: By Mark Lizbarsky,
The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia